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Main Events Of German Unification and Italian Unification

Document one :
timeline of italian and german unification
( notice the different styles in the font)

1848:Metternich -> Foreign Minister
Lombardy & Venetia –> stronger Austrian forces under
Charles Albert-> war on Austri
Pius IX fled from Rome – revolutionary government set up.

Karl Marx publishes the Communist Manifesto .
Revolution in France
Uprisings in some German states; granting of constitutional reforms in Prussia.
Revolutions in Italy.
Revolutions in Vienna, Budapest, and Prague.
Frankfurt Assembly meets and proposes a plan for the unification of Germany; Prussian king refuses to take the crown.
Napoleon III wins presidential election in France.
Republic declared in Rome – later defeated by French
Revolutions in Italy.

1854-1856 Crimean War.

1852: Cavour appointed as PM of Piedmont

1854: Piedmont sent troop to support British and French in the Crimean War

1856: Congress of Paris – Cavour attended but took little part in the negotiations

1858: Orsini Bomb Plot forced Napoleon III into action. Agreed to support Piedmont by Compact of Plombieres

1859: War engineered with Austria.
Peaceful revolutions in Modena, Tuscany and Parma
2 defeats for the Austrians at Magenta and Solferino
Napoleon III then made peace with Austrians at Villafranca. Piedmont got Lombardy and Austria kept Venitia.

Austria declares war on the Kingdom of Sardinia, allied with France.

1860: Insurrection in Sicily. Garibaldi & The Thousand soon landed.Victory at Calatafimi- Garabaldi in control of the island within 3 months
August – Garibaldi’s forces landed on mainland. Too late Ferdinand II made political concessions – he then fled.
September 1860 Piedmontese troops invaded the Papal States – victory at Casteldifardo
October – Garibaldi met Victor Emmanuel II at Teano and handed his conquests over.

Sardinia annexes provinces in central Italy after plebiscites; France receives Savoy and Nice.

1861; Death of Cavour

Emancipation of Russian serfs.
Kingdom of Italy proclaimed with King Victor Immanuel II as king.
Kingdom of Italy proclaimed with King Victor Immanuel II as king.
1862: Garibaldi led expedition to capture Rome – ‘ Roma o morte’. Unsuccessful!

1866: Austro-Prussian war. Italy acquired Venetia
Seven Weeks' War between Prussia and Austria; Italy acquires Venetia.
1867: Garibaldi’s second attempt to take Rome halted by the French

1870: Outbreak of war between Prussia and France saw withdrawal of French garrison from Rome – declared capital Italy
Franco-Prussian War ends with capitulation of French Second Empire.
Italy annexes Rome.

January 18, 1871 German Empire proclaimed.

Maps of italian unification and german

Italian Unification." Amit Mendelsohn - Creative and IT. Web. 10 Feb. 2010. <>.

Unification of Germany." The Astro Home Page. Web. 10 Feb. 2010. <>.